1. Introduction 1.1 The Investment Strategy Statement has been prepared in accordance with the Local Government Pension Scheme (Management and Investment of Funds) Regulations 2016. 1.2 City of Bradford Metropolitan District Council became the administering authority of the West Yorkshire Pension Fund in 1986. The Fund covers the five District Councils of West Yorkshire together with numerous other employers. 2. Investment Decision Making Process 2.1 The Council has delegated all its functions as administering authority of the Pension Fund to the Governance and Audit Committee. The Director - West Yorkshire Pension Fund, who reports to the Chief Executive, has day to day control of the management of all aspects of the Fund's activities. The Governance and Audit Committee utilises the Investment Advisory Panel as the vehicle for overseeing the Fund's investment functions. 2.2 The Panel determines the investment policy of the Fund and has ultimate responsibility for investment strategy. The Panel undertakes its responsibilities through taking appropriate advice from external advisers, supported by the in-house investment management team. 2.3 Once the investment strategy has been set at the quarterly meetings of the Panel, the in-house investment management team undertakes sector and stock selection on a discretionary basis to implement the strategy. 3. Variety of Investments To Be Held 3.1 The West Yorkshire Pension Fund will hold investments in Fixed Interest Securities, Equities, Index Linked Securities, Managed and Unitised Funds (including Property Unit Trusts), Alternative Investments, and Cash Deposits, covering all the world markets. 3.2 A proportion of the Fund's investments will be held in Emerging Markets, both through direct investments and pooled vehicles. 3.3 The Fund will invest in Private Equity, Infrastructure, Hedge Funds and Listed Alternatives which, together with Property, will be classed as Alternative Investments. 3.4 The Fund will not invest directly in unquoted companies, except where such investment is part of a pooled arrangement or joint venture with one or more pension funds. 3.5 Stock lending will be actively pursued up to the 35% limit. The Investment Advisory Panel initially agreed this on 20 October 2005, and considers this decision annually. 4. Suitability of Particular Types of Investment 4.1 The biggest proportion of the Fund's investment will be in Equities. This type of investment bias is intended to maximise growth in the value of assets over the long term. 4.2 Fixed Interest Securities, Index Linked Securities, Alternative Investments and Cash Deposits will make up the balance of investment. The distribution of investments between the asset classes will vary based on perceived economic and market conditions. 4.3 The Fund's planned asset allocation strategy will be linked to a fund-specific benchmark, and for 2017/18 the Fund will invest within the following control ranges for each asset class. Depending on market conditions, the Fund may stray outside the control ranges on occasions before adjustments are made to rectify the situation. This table will be updated whenever the Investment Advisory Panel decides on changes to the control ranges. Benchmark % Control Range % Equities 65 +7.5 to -7.5 UK 35 +5 to -5 Overseas 30 +10 to -5 North America 8 +5 to -5 Europe (Ex UK) 10 +5 to -5 Japan 4 +3 to -3 Asia Pacific (ex Japan) 3 +3 to -3 Emerging Markets 5 +3 to -3 Bonds 17 +3 to -3 UK Fixed Interest Gilts 5 +3 to -3 UK linked Gilts 5 +3 to -3 Corporate Bonds 4 +3 to -3 Global Bonds 3 +2 to -2 Property 5 +2 to -2 Private Equity 5 +2 to -2 Private Infrastructure 4 +2 to -2 Hedge Funds 0 +2 to -2 Listed Alternatives 2 +2 to -2 Cash 2 +3 to -3 5. Risk 5.1 To minimise risk, the investment portfolio of the Fund will be continually monitored and reviewed, and the portfolio will be well diversified as evidenced by the fact that the Fund's equity holdings are spread across more than 300 UK companies, 700 foreign companies, and a range of unit trusts and managed funds. 5.2 Risk will also be controlled by reviewing on a continuous basis the risk attached to the Fund's asset allocation relative to the fund-specific benchmark, to ensure that any major divergence from the benchmark is acceptable. 5.3 The fund recognises the risks and opportunities associated with climate change, and will seek to measure carbon exposure within the equity portfolio and reduce that exposure over time. The fund will continue to increase investment in low carbon technology and renewable energy in order to encourage and facilitate further progression toward a cleaner economy. 5.4 Custodian risk is controlled through continuous monitoring and periodic review of the custodial arrangements. 5.5 Risk is also monitored in relation to the funding position of the Fund and the investment requirements that flow from it, in conjunction with the Fund's Actuary 5.6 Counter-party and cash management risk is controlled by the in-house investment management team through the setting of appropriate limits for exposure with any individual organisation. 6. Expected Return on Investments 6.1 The Fund's investment portfolio will be actively managed by internal managers, supported by the external investment advisers, and the Fund's annual investment return will be measured against the fund-specific benchmark. The expected return on investments will be to achieve +0.5% per annum above the fund-specific benchmark annualised over 3-year rolling periods, and linked to an under-performance limit of 1.5% against the benchmark in any one year, as measured independently by an approved third party. 7. Collaborative Investment and Pooling 7.1 WYPF has signed a memorandum of understanding with the Greater Manchester and Merseyside Pension Funds to create the Northern Pool (‘the Pool’) in order to meet the criteria for pooling investments released by Government on 25 November 2015. 7.2 The three funds submitted their pooling proposal to Government in July 2016 and the Department for Communities and Local Government provided confirmation in January 2017 that it is content for the funds to proceed with the formation of the Pool as set out in the July 2016 proposal. The proposal is available on this website. 7.3 Based on 31 March 2015 asset values, the total value of assets, across the three participating funds, to be invested in the Pool is £35.416bn, which is in excess of the £25bn criteria set by Government. All assets other than day-to-day cash used for scheme administration purposes will be invested via the Pool once transition is complete. Day-to- day cash is assumed to be 1% of total assets for each fund. 7.4 For the immediate future after inception of the Pool, the Fund’s public-market assets will continue to be held in segregated mandates owned directly by the administering authority, but managed by the Pool. A single custodian will be appointed by the Pool, which will simplify the future consolidation of mandates. 7.5 All non-listed assets will be managed by the Pool from its formation. Subject to value for money requirements being fulfilled, new investments (i.e. those entered into after the formation of the Pool) in private market assets will be made on a shared ownership basis, via either collective investment vehicles or limited partnerships. 7.6 Legacy private market assets (i.e. those entered into prior to the formation of the Pool) will be run-off on a segregated basis. 7.7 This approach will be reviewed periodically going forwards to ensure this continues to demonstrate value for money, particularly following any changes to funds’ strategic asset allocations, pool management arrangements or taxation policy in the UK or internationally. 7.8 The reviews will take place no less than every 3 years. 7.9 Once established it is intended that the Pool will provide the following services to the participating authorities on an in-house basis: Implement the strategic asset allocations of the participating authorities Management of UK and Overseas equities and bonds Selection of private equity, infrastructure & property funds. Direct UK infrastructure investment via a collective investment vehicle Legal and accounting support 7.10 It is intended that the Pool will externally procure the following services: External fund management for certain mandates Common custodian for Pool (plus depositaries & fund administrators where required for any pooled funds that are established for non-listed assets) Investment management systems Audit services Performance analytics Responsible Investment advisory services Value for money reviews of structure 7.11 A Pool Oversight Board will be established to: provide oversight of the Pool; and act as a forum for the participating authorities to express the views of their pension committees 7.12 The Oversight Board’s primary roles are to ensure that the Pool is effectively implementing the participating authorities’ strategic asset allocations and to oversee reporting to the participating authorities’ pension committees. 7.13 The legal structure of the Oversight Board is expected to be a joint committee. There will be clear separation of duties between the Oversight Board and the Pool. The Oversight Board will not be undertaking any regulated activities. 7.14 The Pool’s governing documentation will grant the Oversight Body and each administering authority certain powers regarding the operation of the Pool, which can be used to ensure the effective performance of the Pool. 7.15 Reporting processes of the Pool will include regular written reports on the performance of Pool investments to the Oversight Body, which will be discussed at formal meetings. 7.16 Officers of the Pool will also report and present directly the administering authorities’ pension committees and local pension boards as appropriate. 7.17 A report on the progress of asset transfers will be made to the Scheme Advisory Board annually 8 Transaction Costs 8.1 The in-house team of investment managers utilise a list of brokers to provide a dealing service for share transactions undertaken. Commission paid to all brokers on UK and Overseas share transactions are at competitive rates negotiated by the in-house investment managers. 8.2 Transaction fees and custody fees are paid to HSBC for transactions on terms agreed with HSBC under the contract for banking and custody services. 9. Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Policy 9.1 Investment decisions are taken based on financial and commercial considerations so as to yield the best return by way of income and capital appreciation. If it is shown that particular types of social, environmental and ethical investment can produce at least comparable returns, then the Fund will invest in such companies as part of the normal investment process. 9.2 The fund will actively invest in low carbon and renewable energy technology where suitable opportunities arise, in order to encourage a move toward a lower carbon economy. The Fund will increase exposure via infrastructure funds, equity investments and alternative investments. The Fund will continue to encourage companies to consider climate change and environmental risk in their business strategies, and will co-sign shareholder resolutions at company annual general meetings where appropriate. 9.3 The voting policy of the West Yorkshire Pension Fund is viewed as a fundamental contribution towards socially responsible investment. The Fund is committed to ensuring that the companies in which it has a shareholding adopt sound principles of corporate responsibility, particularly in relation to environmental and employment standards. The Fund will utilise its shareholding wherever possible, through the voting policy and engagement, to exert influence on those companies falling short of acceptable standards. 9.4 The WYPF is a member of the Local Authority Pension Fund Forum (LAPFF), a special interest group of the Local Government Association, which comprises over 70 local authority pension funds with combined assets of over £175 billion. The Forum exists to promote the investment interests of local authority pension funds, and in particular to maximise their influence as shareholders to promote corporate social responsibility and high standards of corporate governance amongst the companies in which they invest. The Forum issues research and guidance relating to climate change and employment standards and promotes best investment practice for the Local Government Pension Scheme nationally. The Forum regularly engages directly with large companies in this regard and has been effective in improving companies understanding of the requirements of investors. Representatives of the LAPFF have attended the Annual General Meetings of companies where shareholder resolutions have been brought, and these have been well received by the companies involved. 9.5 The WYPF is also a member of the Institutional Investors Group on Climate Change (IIGCC). The IIGCC seeks to promote a better understanding of the implications of climate change amongst its members and other institutional investors, and to encourage companies and markets in which its members invest to address any material risks and opportunities to their businesses associated with climate change and a shift to a lower carbon economy. 9.6 The WYPF first became a signatory to the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) in 2007. The CDP seeks information from over 2,750 companies world-wide on their Greenhouse Gas Emissions. 10. Exercise of Rights Attached to Investments 10.1 The West Yorkshire Pension Fund will exercise its voting rights at the Annual and Extraordinary General Meetings of all UK companies, European companies within the Eurotop 300, US companies in the S&P 500, and Japanese companies in the TOPIX index, and companies in all other countries, in which the Fund has a shareholding. The voting policy to be adopted by the Fund at these meetings will be based on the latest 'Shareholder Guidelines' issued by the Pensions and Investment Research Consultants Limited (PIRC), an independent adviser to the pensions industry who provide policy research and analysis on shareholder issues. These 'Shareholder Guidelines' encompass principles of the UK Corporate Governance Code published by the Financial Reporting Council. Details of the Fund's voting policy, and its voting activity, are published on the Fund's website. 10.2 Special resolutions at UK companies are voted on based upon guidance from the LAPFF and PIRC. 10.3 The Fund will normally take up its entitlement to rights issues when offered at a discount to the current market price. 11. Myners' Report 11.1 In 2000, the Government commissioned a ‘Review of Institutional Investment in the United Kingdom’ by Paul Myners of Gartmore Fund Management Group. Paul Myners published the outcome of his review in a report in March 2001. In response to the proposals contained in the review, the Government issued a set of investment principles. Since then HM Treasury has undertaken a review of the principles following a consultation, which was based on a study commissioned by the Government and carried out by the National Association of Pension Fund. The outcome of the consultation has been to produce a smaller number of high-level principles, and they cover the six areas of effective decision making; clear objectives; risk and liabilities; performance assessment; responsible ownership; and transparency and reporting. 11.2 The extent to which WYPF has adopted these investment principles is described in the following paragraphs in accordance with the guidance issued by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government. 12 Effective Decision-Making 12.1 The Investment Panel encompasses a range of expertise, supported by external investment advisers and the in-house team of investment managers. In fact, the external investment advisers and senior investment managers attend all meetings of the Panel so as to provide the necessary expert advice to support the Panel members in coming to their decisions. Great emphasis is placed on training for Panel members, and a number of initiatives on this front have been, and continue to be, developed. Attempts are being made to ensure that Panel members have a minimum tenure of appointment of at least three years on the Panel so as to ensure continuity and a build up of experience. An annual business plan for the Panel is produced. 13. Clear Objectives 13.1 Members of the Panel take a long-term view in setting investment objectives. Investment objectives are set for the Fund itself, which have due regard to the Fund’s Investment Strategy Statement and Funding Strategy Statement. Investment return targets are also set for the managers and external investment advisers in order to encourage added value commensurate with a measured and controlled level of volatility. 14. Risk and Liabilities 14.1 Panel members focus entirely on asset allocation, with day-to-day stock selection left to the discretion of the in-house investment managers. Active management is adopted with appropriate risk controls as reflected in a well-diversified portfolio of investments. 15. Performance Assessment 15.1 The Panel formally monitors the investment performance of the Fund annually at one of its meetings, and an assessment is made of the in-house managers’ and external investment advisers’ performance against the investment target return. Since 2005 the Fund has used a fund-specific benchmark to compare actual asset allocation and investment returns. Arrangements have been put in place for several years now for the external investment advisers to assess the effectiveness of the Panel itself on an annual basis. 16. Responsible Ownership 16.1 The WYPF actively votes its shares in all UK companies, the top 300 European companies, the US S&P 500 companies, the Japanese TOPIX companies and in companies in all other countries, in which it has a shareholding. WYPF also jointly engages with companies through its membership of the Local Authority Pension Fund Forum, the Institutional Investors Group on Climate Change, and the Carbon Disclosure Project. 17. Transparency and Reporting 17.1 The Investment Strategy Statement is regularly updated and is available on the Fund's website. Details of the Fund’s voting policy and voting activity are also published on the website.